Scientists: Eradication of cockroaches will soon become impossible

Eradication of cockroaches will soon become impossible

Scientists: Eradication of cockroaches will soon become impossible

The resistance of cockroaches to insecticides is constantly increasing. According to the research published last month by Scientific Reports, researchers in more than 100 different apartments used common methods of cockroach extermination…

The resistance of cockroaches to insecticides is constantly increasing. According to a study published last month by Scientific Reports, researchers simulated common cockroach extermination methods in more than 100 different apartments and finally found that almost none of those methods could completely destroy German cockroaches.

In fact, according to Michael Shuarf, the senior researcher of this project and a professor of Purdue University’s Department of Entomology, cockroaches are becoming resistant to all kinds of insecticides, and it is predicted that one day it will be impossible to control the population of these insects.


In some cases, the population of cockroaches increases after the use of insecticides


Cockroaches (apart from being unpleasant insects) can cause allergens and aggravate asthma in people. These insects sometimes carry dangerous bacteria such as salmonella or Escherichia coli. On the other hand, when you use insecticides to kill these creatures and there is no effect on them, you continue to use these chemicals to kill cockroaches, which can have adverse effects on your health.

But the real danger with cockroaches is their multidimensional resistance; In other words, besides being able to survive against insecticides, these organisms are able to continue growing and reproducing. In recent researches, it has been determined that this trait is being cultivated in cockroaches, and interestingly, the new cockroaches examined in this research showed resistance to insecticides that they had not encountered before.

In their study, Purdue researchers simulated common strategies for dealing with cockroaches in residential apartments and examined three different methods over a six-month period. In the end, they announced that, contrary to their expectations, none of the three mentioned methods completely destroyed the cockroaches.


The resistance of the next generation of cockroaches against the insecticide is four to six times higher than the previous generation


Scientists believe that cockroaches whose bodies have become resistant to a type of pesticide have transferred this resistance to their pupae, and gradually their population has become resistant to various methods of dealing with cockroaches.


Shuaroff said: It is predicted that in just one generation, the resistance of cockroaches will increase four to six times, which we never expected.


The resistance of domestic cockroaches to insecticides is not a problem that has happened recently and the first reports about this date back to the 1950s, but the introduction of the concept of insecticide-resistant super cockroaches is a completely new category.

Shuaroff advises those facing this problem in their homes to use a combination of approaches, including the use of insecticides, improved sanitation, and structural modification of buildings.

One of the reasons why cockroaches are so resilient is their ability to adapt to different environments and food sources. They can survive in extreme temperatures, high radiation levels, and even without oxygen for some time. They can also feed on almost anything, including paper, glue, soap, and hair. This makes them very hard to eradicate, as they can find shelter and sustenance in almost any place.

Another reason why cockroaches are so resistant to insecticides is their genetic diversity and rapid reproduction. Cockroaches have a large number of chromosomes, which allows them to have more variations in their genes. This means that they can evolve faster and develop new traits that help them survive. They can also reproduce quickly, producing hundreds of offspring in a short time. This increases the chances of passing on the resistance genes to the next generation.

Some researchers have suggested that the only way to effectively control cockroaches is to use a combination of biological, chemical, and physical methods. Biological methods involve using natural enemies of cockroaches, such as parasitic wasps, fungi, or bacteria, to infect and kill them. Chemical methods involve using newer and more effective insecticides, such as insect growth regulators, which disrupt the development and reproduction of cockroaches. Physical methods involve using traps, baits, vacuum cleaners, or heat treatments, to capture and eliminate cockroaches.

However, these methods are not without challenges and limitations. Biological methods may pose risks to human health and the environment, as the natural enemies may also affect other organisms or become invasive. Chemical methods may have negative effects on human health and the environment, as the insecticides may contaminate the air, water, or soil, or cause allergic reactions or poisoning. Physical methods may be costly, time-consuming, or impractical, as they require frequent monitoring and maintenance, or may not reach all the hiding places of cockroaches.

Therefore, the best way to prevent and reduce the problem of cockroach infestation is to prevent them from entering and establishing in the first place. This can be done by improving the hygiene and sanitation of the premises, sealing the cracks and gaps where cockroaches can enter, removing the sources of food and water where cockroaches can feed, and disposing of the garbage and clutter where cockroaches can breed. By doing these simple steps, one can make the environment less favorable and attractive for cockroaches, and reduce the need for using insecticides or other methods.

Cockroaches are among the most ancient and successful animals on Earth, and they have proven to be very difficult to control. However, by understanding their biology, behavior, and resistance mechanisms, and by applying a combination of methods and strategies, humans may be able to manage and minimize the impact of these pests on their health and well-being.

if you liked our article also read this article about Secrets About Bed Bugs That You Should Know

Ultrasonic roach repeller fake or real?!

Ultrasonic roach repeller fake or real?!


Getting rid of pests and insects with an Ultrasonic roach repeller fake or real?!
is this method a solution to get rid of pests or rodents or is it considered a customer scam?

It is recommended to read this article carefully to the end before making any payment for the purchase of an insect and vermin removal device!

Can an ultrasonic device really drive away insects and vermin?

For some time now, electric devices that drive away insects and vermin have been widely advertised on television and cyberspace, and their manufacturers and importers claim that the device, by emitting supersonic sounds, drives away all kinds of insects. Pests (either rodents or insects) from the infected place or even the death of insects and rodents. These devices are called ultrasonic pest repellents, which are offered to customers in different countries of the world under the name or brand and in different forms.

These mouse repellent devices work by creating sounds with short wavelength and high frequency. The frequency created by these devices is more than 20,000 Hz, which is basically referred to as infrasound. The companies that supply these equipments usually falsely write in their advertising brochures that the sound created by the device can only be heard by insects and mice and is very annoying for them so that they either leave the place or die.

Ultrasonic pest repellers are electronic devices that generate high-frequency sounds to repel or destroy household pests such as rodents and insects, of course, it is worth noting that insects and rodents learn how to It has passed itself behind the sound barrier so that they do not have any hearing problems, so it will not cause any eradication and destruction and is nothing more than advertising.

The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) considers the effectiveness of the ultrasonic device to be ineffective.


lets review the details of some advertisements of insect repellent device sellers :

  • Can be used in large halls, warehouses, farms, factories and restaurants
  • Effective Area: For outdoor space up to 8000 square feet (about 2500 square meters)
    The system of sterilizing insects and vermin and preventing them from laying eggs is aimed at eliminating insects permanently.  (really ? nonsense)
  • Device to remove animals, birds, vermin, rats, mice, pigeons, cockroaches, bees, mosquitoes, bed bugs, fleas, spiders, etc.


They declare the performance of this device in terms of removing mice (Mice & Rat), cockroaches, scorpions, bats, ants, bees, flies, spiders, mites, worms, termites, bedbugs, fleas, millipedes and crickets, if there is no root It will not cause damage and destruction, and after some time the customer complains about the device not working.

They claim that the device is designed for homes, villas, stores, warehouses, workshops, hotels, restaurants, confectioneries, factories, industrial kitchens, restrooms, public places, etc., but after purchasing, most of the customers expressed their dissatisfaction. they announceThis device has the approval of America and Europe and has no effect on the physical and nervous mechanism of humans in any age group and all types of pets such as dogs, cats, fish, birds, etc., if this case is not more than a claim and in Now it has been declared obsolete in other countries.

In fact, the sounds that can be heard by the human ear are in the frequency range between 20 and 20,000 Hz, which means that the frequencies outside this range cannot be recognized by humans, because the eardrum due to the impact of these sounds at a sufficient speed and required to create Hearing stimulation does not vibrate. But animals such as dogs, bats, and rodents hear sounds in the infrasound frequency range.

Insects such as locusts hear sounds in the frequency range of 50 to 100 kHz, and insects such as moths and membrane wings hear sounds up to 240 kHz. Of course, the fact that some insects have the ability to feel supersonic sounds cannot lead to the conclusion that they have the ability to kill them or make them escape from the target location. actually they dont even care about those sounds

The studies that have been conducted regarding the effectiveness of the ultrasonic pest control device show different results. In an extensive test conducted by Kansas State University in 2002, these devices were found to be completely ineffective at repelling many insects, such as crickets, and effective against insects such as cockroaches, bed bugs, ants, and spiders. It has not in any way. Of the pests that seem to be bothered by the waves, some experiments have shown that they quickly get used to the waves because they realize that the waves are harmless and easily pass through the sound barrier. so as not to damage their hearing.

Before buying an insect repellent device, please contact the Vice President of Health and Medical Affairs of the University of Medical Sciences, Department of Environmental Health and make sure whether these sellers are approved by the Ministry of Health or not. Do they have supervision in these companies or not?

Basically, sound plays a very important role in the life of insects. Sounds are mostly responsible for the role of a physical mediator to establish intra-species communication. Also, insects may use their hearing power to identify enemies such as bats and other insectivorous creatures. In any case, regarding the effect of these devices on insects, it can be said that their repelling effect on this category of pests has not been proven so far.

The Federal Trade Commission, which is responsible for protecting consumers of goods and services in the United States of America, on May 3, 2001, sent letters to 60 companies that sell these devices to fight insects in the United States. The United States emphasized that they should refrain from including terms such as having scientific support in the announcement of this organization regarding what is written about the effect of these devices on controlling insects and rodents in the advertising brochures of the manufacturing companies: The manufacturer of this device is not compatible with the FTC Act (prohibiting false and misleading advertising).

The research conducted at Louisiana State University regarding the effect of animal repellants on bed bugs and German cockroaches, or tiny cabinet cockroaches, also indicates that the repellants of this device do not affect these insects. In this study, three ultrasonic devices with different characteristics (in terms of output frequency and SPL) were used. According to the authors, the obtained results indicate the inability of this device to remove bed bugs and German cockroaches, and the researchers have not been able to provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding the effect of the removal and destruction of these insect repellent devices on German cockroaches and bed bugs. and get other insects.

Recently, the companies producing the devices are selling poisons to their customers in addition to selling the seemingly repellent device, and on the other hand, it is interesting to know that in their advertisements, they consider the use of poisons in homes as dangerous, and this duality shows that this device It does not work for you in any way!

Dear friend, who after reading this article, still decide to get this device, we suggest that instead of buying several of this device, get only one of this device and then place the device near an insect that There is one in your house, take it to see if the insects have a reaction to this device or not?

Analysis of the life of cockroaches

Analysis of the life of cockroaches

Analysis of the life of cockroaches
Analysis of the life of cockroaches

Analysis of the life of cockroaches

 Cockroaches love heat and live behind radiators and hot water pipes

Although the presence of cockroaches in places causes many health risks, the dangers of using toxic compounds to eliminate them, especially if precautions are not taken, are far greater than the presence of cockroaches.

Characteristics of cockroaches

In terms of appearance, they have a banded abdomen and are oval in shape, they have wings that are placed crosswise on the abdomen, their color is brown or black, and their size is between one and five centimeters. Cockroaches lay eggs after settling in a suitable place.

The number of cockroach eggs is 16 to 48, which are inside the brown bean-shaped capsule. Cockroaches place these capsules in dark places in cracks and seams or under surfaces of tables and chairs or beds and other packed items.

The capsules are gradually enlarged, then a small white young cockroach without wings comes out of it. It takes thirty to fifty days from the beginning of egg laying until the baby cockroach comes out. The adult cockroach lives for a few months to a year, and during this time it spawns several times. Cockroaches like tropical areas, but some species live in temperate areas and in houses and buildings where there is warm and humid air and enough food.

How do cockroaches live?

These insects are fond of sweet and starchy substances. They are made of sugar and sweet chocolate, milk, cheese, meat, bread and cereals, as well as cardboard, book covers, wood on the roof, soles of shoes, carcasses of dead and paralyzed cockroaches, dried and fresh blood, feces, phlegm, Fingernails and toenails of sick and sleeping people are used for nutrition.

Cockroaches love heat and live behind radiators and hot water pipes. They hide in the cracks and seams of the walls, door frames, sofas and dark spots. A group of cockroaches moves by walking and flying.


More common species:


American cockroaches: They are the same sewer cockroaches that are 2.5 to 2.7 cm long and have a red-brown color and their wings are fully developed. These cockroaches live in sewers, and for complete eradication, in addition to sewers, the places where these insects pass through must be sprayed with poison.

German cockroaches: They are among the smallest domestic cockroaches, their length is between 10-15 mm and they are golden yellow to yellowish brown in color. Females are bigger than males and males are slightly lighter than females, i.e. light yellowish brown. Their lifespan is about 6 months. During her life, the female cockroach creates 6 to 8 bags at the end of her body, each of which contains 30 to 40 cockroach eggs.

Each female cockroach produces 180 to 320 young cockroaches during her lifetime. These cockroaches are specific to kitchens and are often found in restaurants, bakeries and homes. This species has developed resistance to common poisons, so special methods are used to eradicate it.

Eastern cockroaches: It is about 2.5 cm long, it is dark in color, it is flat and wide and it has short wings.


Medical importance and fight against cockroaches


Cockroaches are considered important pests that feed on dirt, rotten food, cloth and book glue, they return part of their undigested food, they have a habit of defecating on food, they secrete a substance from their mouth and glands. which create a lasting and unpleasant smell in the path of their movement and their food sources.

Cockroaches by contaminating food through pathogenic agents found in toilets, garbage, etc., transmission agent:

– Bacterial diseases: diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever

– Viral diseases: polio

– Carrying the eggs of parasitic worms

And they also cause allergic reactions such as skin discomfort, itching, eyelid swelling and respiratory problems.

How to fight:

Cockroaches need water, food and shelter to survive. Pollution can be effectively reduced by using the following methods:

Reduction of food sources:

– Placing garbage in non-permeable nylon bags and then inside the trash can at the door

– Fastening in a garbage bag

– Storing food in the refrigerator or in a container with a door

– Collecting leftover food while cooking or eating

– Cleaning kitchen cabinets

– Cleaning the kitchen floor

– Washing food utensils such as dishwashing wire and Scotch after each use

– Cleaning the grease on the ventilators and the wall

– Blocking the seams and cracks on the wall, floor, ceiling, seams between the stairs and…

– Stripping and filling existing strips between tiles, floors and edges of cornices


Reduction of water resources:

– Equipping the sewer floor, especially the kitchen floor with a cover

– Draining the water under the pots

– Washing food dishes as soon as possible

– Drying the washed dishes

– Repairing water faucets that drip.


Spraying cockroaches:

In addition to using improvement standards, it is also possible to fight cockroaches by using insecticides, which is considered as the last method to fight cockroaches due to environmental pollution.

Although the presence of cockroaches in places causes many health risks, the dangers of using toxic compounds to eliminate them, especially if precautions are not taken, are far greater than the presence of cockroaches.

The type of poison and the method of spraying should be chosen by trained and specialized people and spraying should be done by these people. When spraying, all precautionary measures must be observed.

It is necessary to clean and, if possible, wash the target areas before spraying, and food, eating utensils, children’s equipment, sleeping equipment, and birds must be completely covered.

To fight cockroaches, spraying the places that are washed quickly and using poisons that have a low retention effect is not enough, and the egg capsules in the place that are hidden may gradually open, so it is necessary to use more than 2 poisons. – It should remain on the surfaces for 3 months, or if the place is washed, the spraying should be repeated.

if you liked our article about cockroach lifespan and mating , also read our other articles in our web site.


How To Get Rid Of Cockroaches Quickly And Easily:15 Effective Ways

How to get rid of cockroaches quickly and easily

How to get rid of cockroaches quickly and easily:15 effective ways

How to get rid of cockroaches quickly and easily: 15 effective ways

Where do cockroaches come from in the house?

Open food, warmth and darkness are the main criteria for attracting all kinds of animals. Nasty insects move from apartment to apartment through ventilation holes, cracks, pipes, garbage chutes and the façade of the building. They can be brought with you accidentally in a suitcase from vacation, with old furniture, postal parcels.

Scientifically, cockroaches are synanthropic insects. That is, theycannot exist in the wild, outside the human home. Most of all, they are attracted to the kitchen, where they can get food. If there are crumbs on the table all the time, grease stains remain, dirty dishes are stored in the sink – there will be more and more cockroaches every day. They do not disdain food for cats and dogs.

Red creatures make their nests in safe places: in electrical appliances, kitchen cabinets, baseboards, peeled wallpaper, old books. As the colony grows, cockroaches move to neighboring apartments in search of a better life. But before that, they send a “scout” to make sure the new place is safe. If the apartment is clean, the food is safely hidden, there are repellents, they will prefer another dwelling.

Insects do not bite, but they carry various viruses and infections on their legs and body. Such a neighborhood is not safe for humans. What can you get sick with: salmonellosis, tuberculosis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, helminthiasis, microbacteriosis (affects children), etc.


How to understand that cockroaches live in the house:


  • Black dots on wallpaper, tables, dishes are traces of insect activity.
  • Clutches with eggs in corners and secluded places – in this case, insects will have to be driven out twice. First the adults, then the hatched offspring.
  • Face-to-face meeting – when there are a lot of them, they will certainly get in touch. Most often, black (up to 3 cm in length, kitchen) and red (up to 1.5 cm in length, Prusak) cockroaches live in houses.

In addition to these signs, a specific smell appears in the apartment.

How to remove cockroaches forever: folk remedies

Insects quickly adapt to unfavorable conditions, toxic substances, so it is necessary to change the methods of destruction. For starters, you can try folk remedies – they are safe for humans and pets.

  1. Ammonia

    Ammonia is used as a barrier and repellent, so that a colony of insects does not settle in the apartment. All manipulations must be done in a mask and rubber gloves. The product is mixed with water (1 teaspoon per liter), ventilation grilles, skirting boards, apartment floor, furniture, doorways, kitchen appliances are treated. You can soak a cloth in alcohol, put it on top of kitchen cabinets. The procedure is repeated at least 1 time a week. If the living space is empty, then you can place open containers with a concentrated solution.

  2. Boric acid for cockroaches

    The product has been used for decades, it destroys cockroaches with immunity to chemicals. Unlike many poisons, it does not affect the nervous system, but corrodes the digestive tract. It is harmless to humans and animals, but it is better to cook the poison with gloves. Boric acid is sold in pharmacies in liquid form and powders. For processing, it is better to take the dry version. It is sprinkled on baseboards, corners, floors. But acid-based baits work more effectively: mix the powder with cheese or egg yolk, roll balls and put them in places where nests are found. You can season the “dinner” with vanilla, flour, sugar – the more flavorful, the better.

  3. cold

    Cockroaches do not tolerate cold: at +5 and below, they die. They can’t maintain the right level of heat like animals. Eggs need sub-zero temperatures to die. Such drastic measures are resorted to when other means fail. To do this, all doors and windows are opened, the heating is turned off, and the room is ventilated for at least 4 hours. Freezing is effective in winter in severe frost. At the same time, there is a risk of damage to the heating, plumbing system and household appliances.

  4. heat treatment

    Hot air treatment is an equally effective method. Cockroaches die at a temperature of +50 degrees. If it’s 40 degrees outside, you can take your clothes and carpets out in the sun. Some of the insects will definitely not return. A steamer is used to destroy the nests. And a hot fog will help to cope with a large population. The non-toxic substance is heated to +70 degrees and sprayed throughout the apartment. The suspension fills all the nooks and crannies. The only disadvantage is that you can’t enter the apartment for 10 hours after treatment. At the same time, keep all doors and windows closed for 2 hours.

  5. trap

    A good way if the insects have not yet multiplied. Grease the inside of a deep bowl or jar with vegetable oil, put bread, honey or cookies on the bottom. Naïve Prussians will climb into the jar for a treat, and will not be able to get back because of the greasy film. You will have to change the bait every 3-4 days to maintain an attractive smell.

  6. geranium

    They get rid of uninvited guests with the help of pungent smells, for example, geraniums. The easiest way is to place flower pots in the kitchen and living rooms. You can place the leaves next to the ventilation hole. Aside from geraniums, insects don’t like the scent of chamomile. It can be dried, the powder can be spread along the migration routes. The essential oils of these plants, added to the water during harvesting, help well.

  7. kerosene

    A long-standing trick that helps repel many insects. Kerosene is used to treat corners, skirting boards, and habitats. One procedure does not give the desired effect, so it is repeated from time to time. Do not use the liquid near sources of fire. It is mandatory to wear gloves.

  8. acetic acid

    If there is no ammonia and kerosene in the house, then there is definitely table vinegar. The pungent smell of acid scares away impudent tenants. Vinegar is used to moisten rags, wipe baseboards, and put them in secluded places. Connoisseurs add hot pepper to the liquid. This remedy will not kill cockroaches, but they will definitely forget the way to the apartment.

  9. herbs

    To combat kitchen “terrorists”, aromatic herbs (dried or live) are often used. The most unpleasant for them are bay leaves, wormwood, wild rosemary, mint, elderberry, anise, cedar, tea tree. Flowers are placed on windowsills, leaves are placed in the habitats of cockroaches.

    These products help well if they are used in combination with chemicals.

How to deal with cockroaches with professional means

Insecticides are toxic to humans and animals. When processing, you must strictly follow the instructions printed on the package.

  1. gels

    They are applied pointwise in places where animals or a small child cannot reach. For example, on the top of a hanging kitchen cabinet or behind the trash can. Spruce trees do not have a smell, but are very attractive to cockroaches, which carry it on their paws and pass it on to their relatives. The drug acts on nerve cells, after contact the “victim” stops breathing. It is effective in small colonies

  2. traps

    Purchasable traps work in the same way as homemade variants. There are different types: glue, poisonous, electrical. The principle is simple: there is a bait inside, on which the cockroach “bites”, then it either gets stuck there, or poisons itself and brings poison to the colony, or dies from an electric shock. Electric traps are the most expensive and durable

  3. crayons

    Crayons are used to draw bold lines along the baseboards, behind the furniture, near the ventilation shafts. As soon as the cockroach crosses the border, the poison is on the body – within a few hours it causes complete paralysis. Crayons are very toxic, you can’t “draw” on the kitchen table, next to the dishes. Work with gloves

  4. aerosols

    The sprayers are instantaneous, and you need to close the windows to be effective. Aerosol treatment can only be done in a respirator. Food, dishes are covered with a film, after the procedure a general cleaning is carried out.

  5. ultrasonic repellents

    These devices do not kill insects, but force them to leave the apartment using ultrasonic waves. They are safe for humans and large pets. They repel not only Prussians, but also fleas, bedbugs, midges, mosquitoes. They are affordable — from 500 rubles

  6. exterminators

    If the above remedies did not help, it is worth seeking help from exterminators. Departure of professionals costs from 2000 rubles, it all depends on the area of processing. Many give a guarantee against re-appearance, which is valid for 3-6 months. After treatment, you need to carry out wet cleaning and wash all home textiles. Be sure to warn your neighbors from adjacent apartments, agree to carry out joint pest control. Otherwise, cockroaches will wait out the toxic blow in a safe place, and then return back.
    If there are residents in the entrance who lead an antisocial lifestyle, then the insects will periodically return. This is a problem that requires comprehensive measures. Make a collective complaint together with other neighbors. It can be sent to the management company, the Housing Inspectorate, Rospotrebnadzor. They will take appropriate action.

    if you liked our article about cockroaches also read this article : Emerging Innovations In Pest Control And Management

Emerging Innovations in Pest Control

Emerging Innovations in Pest Control and Management

Emerging Innovations in Pest Control and Management


Pests like insects, rodents, mites, molluscs, nematodes, and wildlife can cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, stored foods, livestock, human health, and infrastructure. Historically, controlling these pests relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides. However, many commonly used pesticides have drawbacks like toxicity to humans and other non-target organisms, persistence in the environment, and fostering pest resistance. Additionally, public concerns over food safety and environmental impact are growing. These issues underscore the need for developing alternative pest management approaches that are safer, more selective, and ecologically sustainable.


Recent technological and scientific advances are enabling the innovation of novel, eco-friendly pest control solutions. Research in the areas of genetics, biochemistry, microbial control, semiochemicals, and physics is leading to greener and smarter pest control strategies.


Genetic Modification for Plant Resistance


Genetic engineering and gene editing methods can produce agricultural crops with enhanced pest resistance. Scientists have identified plant genes that confer tolerance to certain insect pests, pathogens, and weeds. These natural resistance genes can be isolated and inserted into the genomes of susceptible crop varieties using transgenic technology. For example, transgenic corn with genes from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium expresses insecticidal proteins that protect against corn borers. Bt cotton, potatoes, and other crops have also been developed.


Genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 enable more precise and accelerated genetic improvement of crops. Researchers can knockout genes that make plants vulnerable to pests or modify regulatory genes to activate defense responses. Genome editing avoids foreign gene introduction associated with early GMOs. Scientists are utilizing the growing genome editing toolset to improve resistance in diverse crops against insects, diseases, viruses, nematodes, and weeds.


Herbicide tolerance traits have also been introduced in crops like soybean, corn, canola, and alfalfa through genetic engineering. This allows farmers to spray broad-spectrum herbicides over entire fields without harming crops and simplifies weed management. However, many experts warn overuse of herbicides on tolerant crops can lead to evolution of resistant weeds. Integrated approaches with limited chemical inputs are recommended.


Researchers continue seeking and evaluating new pest resistance genes from wild plant relatives for introduction to domesticated crops by traditional breeding or biotech methods. Advanced tools like high-throughput phenotyping and computer modeling guide this ongoing process of crop genetic improvement against pests.


Natural Pesticides


Botanical extracts, microbial toxins, minerals, and other natural substances are being explored as alternatives to synthetic chemical pesticides. Pyrethrins extracted from chrysanthemum flowers have insecticidal properties and low mammalian toxicity. Neem-based products like neem oil and azadirachtin disrupt growth and reproduction in insects. Rotenone and spinosad made by soil bacteria target insect nervous systems. Microbial insecticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins or insect- attacking viruses selectively kill pests while posing minimal risks to humans or ecology. Fungal agents like Beauveria bassiana act as biopesticides against insect and arthropod pests.


Various plant oils and inorganic compounds also have fungicidal effects against crop pathogens. Diatomaceous earth and silica gels control grain pests mechanically. Natural pesticides generally foster lower pest resistance compared to synthetic pesticides. Advances in high-throughput screening, microbial fermentation, nanotechnology, and chemical synthesis continue to expand the library of biopesticides available to growers.


Semiochemicals for Pest Control


Semiochemicals like insect pheromones and plant volatiles provide environmentally safe options for monitoring, mass trapping, attracting, distracting, or repelling pests. Specific pheromone traps can capture and monitor population densities of key crop pests. Mass pheromone trapping reduces pest pressure during early infestation stages. Mating disruption methods use synthetic pheromones to confuse mate-finding and reduce reproduction rates. Kairomones attract natural predators to suppress pest numbers. Food baits containing semiochemicals lure pests away from crops. Optimizing pheromone release rates and combinations can improve cost-effectiveness and field reliability of semiochemical solutions.


Biocontrol with Natural Enemies


Biocontrol uses living organisms to combat pests and diseases. Natural enemies of insect and mite pests include predatory arthropods, parasitoid wasps, entomopathogenic fungi/bacteria/viruses, and insectivorous birds/bats. These agents can be introduced or conserved to reduce pest populations below economic thresholds. Selective biocontrol agents target only specified pests, unlike broad-spectrum pesticides that indiscriminately kill pests and beneficials. For example, imported natural enemies have been successfully used to control invasive pests lacking native predators.


Creating optimal habitat and providing alternate food sources can strengthen conservation biological control programs. Augmentative biological control involves mass-rearing and periodic release of natural enemies into crop fields following pest outbreaks. Inoculative release establishes biocontrol agent populations that multiply and provide sustained control. Scientists also study interspecies interactions to identify potent biocontrol candidates. Genetic improvements of natural enemies via selective breeding or genome editing may further enhance biocontrol efficacy.


RNA Interference Pesticides


RNA interference (RNAi) refers to a mechanism of gene silencing mediated by small RNAs. Research shows that introducing specific double-stranded RNAs into insects can suppress critical pest genes, resulting in death or reduced fecundity. RNAi pest control sprays could provide species-specific targeting lacking in conventional pesticides. Scientists seek to identify lethal gene targets across pest insects, weeds, fungi, and parasites. Crops can also be engineered to express RNAi sequences that protect against feeding damage through ingestion by pests.


RNAi has advantages over chemical insecticides, including low non-target effects, oral efficacy, and limited propensity for resistance. However, unstable degradation and inconsistent uptake of RNAi molecules under field conditions remain key challenges. Advanced formulation and delivery methods like microspheres, polymers, and nanoparticles seek to improve reliability and lower costs. RNAi technology has potential to replace broad-spectrum pesticides, but remains in early research and development stages.


Optical and Physical Pest Control


Researchers are developing pest control systems involving lasers, lights, sound waves, electricity, vacuums, and barriers. Lasers that sense and zap mosquitoes and other flying insects have been deployed for vector control. LED lights customized to emit specific insect-attracting wavelengths draw pests to traps and away from crops. Powerful sound waves can kill soil-dwelling pests. Electrified surfaces deter crawling insects. Physical barrier meshes prevent pest entry into greenhouses and buildings. Automated vibrational harvesting uses rapid shaking to dislodge pests from plants. Further engineering can improve selectivity, energy-efficiency, automation, and effectiveness of physical pest control solutions.


Pest Management Approach


Each new pest management tactic has advantages and disadvantages. A prudent integrated pest management (IPM) strategy combines biological, cultural, physical, and chemical controls sustainably to minimize economic, health, and environmental risks. Preventive practices like crop rotation, sanitation, pest-resistant varieties, and habitat management can limit pest pressure preemptively. Regular scouting and monitoring ensures timely intervention. Simulation models predict pest dynamics and optimize treatment plans. Remote sensing, drones, and robotics automate surveillance and response. Gene drives, sterile insect technique (SIT), and mating disruption suppress pest populations. Ecologically based IPM maximizes natural control mechanisms. The judicious integration of old and new pest management tools can reduce reliance on disruptive chemicals for productive and sustainable agriculture.


In summary, ongoing innovation in diverse fields like biotechnology, microbial science, semiochemistry, optics, and material physics are driving advances in pest control technology. Harnessing natural genetic resistance, biological control, behavior-disrupting semiochemicals, nanotechnology, and intelligent robotics promises effective alternatives to conventional pesticides. Continued research, safety evaluation, and adoption of science-based IPM policies can facilitate the transition to safer, economically viable, and ecologically sustainable pest management systems.

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Keeping Pests away

Keeping Pests away: A Seasonal Guide

seasonal tips to Keeping Pests away

Pests can be a real nuisance. Just when you think you’ve got them under control, a new season brings a new wave ready to invade your home. Staying on top of pest prevention and management is key to maintaining a pest-free environment all year long. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore some of the most common pests in each season and proven methods to banish them for good.

Keeping Pests away in Springtime

Spring is the time when many pests come out of hibernation or dormancy and start looking to feed and reproduce. Here are some of the biggest offenders and how to fend them off:


Ants start foraging for food in spring and may find their way into your home through the tiniest cracks and crevices. To deter ants:

– Seal any entry points with caulk or weatherstripping. This removes access to food sources inside.

– Eliminate moisture buildup by fixing leaky pipes and cleaning gutters. Ants need water.

– Use borax-based baits or sprays around potential entry points. This poisons them before they can enter.

– Draw a chalk line around your home’s perimeter. Ants avoid chalk.


Warm weather draws termites out to swarm and search for places to nest. Stop them before they start by:

– Removing dead trees, tree stumps, and excess mulch that attracts them.

– Treating soils around foundation walls with termite-specific insecticides. This creates a chemical barrier.

– Installing termite bait stations around the home’s exterior. These contain pesticides that termites unknowingly spread throughout the colony.


Mosquitoes breed rapidly in standing water. Reduce their numbers by:

– Draining or changing bird baths, pet dishes, and other sources of standing water weekly.

– Removing leaves and debris from gutters and draining areas. This eliminates breeding spots.

– Using BTI pellets in standing water. This biological pesticide kills mosquito larvae.

– Installing or repairing screens on windows and doors. This keeps mosquitoes out of your home.


Ticks thrive in overgrown brush and woods. When working or playing outside:

– Wear EPA-registered repellent containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus on exposed skin and treat clothes with permethrin.

– Check your body for ticks and shower immediately after coming inside.

– Clean up brush and leaf litter in your yard’s common areas. This removes ticks’ habitat.

– Ask your vet about medications to repel and kill ticks on your pets.

Summertime Siege

The hot and humid days of summer create ideal conditions for indoor and outdoor pests. Arm yourself against summer’s swarm with these tactics:


Roaches contaminate food and spread bacteria. Stop an infestation through:

– Sealing cracks and entry points. Caulk and weatherstrip are roaches’ worst enemies.

– Setting out sticky traps to catch roaches. Check often and replace when full.

– Using boric acid powder under and behind appliances and in wall voids. Roaches walk through it and die.

– Keeping kitchens clean and dry. Don’t leave crumbs or water sources.


While most household spiders are harmless, some like black widows can bite. Reduce webs with:

– Vacuuming floors, furniture, and corners regularly. This also removes eggs.

– Sealing cracks around windows, doors, and siding. This blocks access points.

– Removing debris piles and overgrown vegetation in your yard. These provide habitat and insect food sources.

– Using essential oils like peppermint, tea tree, and citrus as organic repellents.

Wasps, Hornets, & Bees

Don’t disturb hives yourself! Call a professional to:

– Identify the species and create a pest-specific removal plan.

– Suit up with protective apparel to avoid stings during removal.

– Use specialized tools like vacuums and dusts to safely eliminate them.

– Seal up access holes after removal so new colonies can’t enter.


Flies breed rapidly in trash, manure, and rotting organic material:

– Remove food sources by cleaning trash cans and picking up pet waste.

– Make DIY fly paper from syrup or molasses to trap flies on sticky paper.

– Install screens on windows and repair torn screens. This keeps flies out.

– Use fans near doors to blow flies back outside when entering or exiting.

Pest Prevention in the Fall

Fall is the time when pests seek out winter shelter in homes. Stop them at the door with these tips:


Mice enter through cracks as small as a dime and chew everything in sight. Stop them through:

– Sealing all entry points inside and out with weatherstripping, steel wool, copper mesh, and caulk.

– Setting humane traps baited with peanut butter near suspected entry sites.

– Removing exterior debris piles and pruning back vegetation touching your home’s exterior. This takes away shelter.

– Sprinkling peppermint oil in problem areas. Mice hate the smell.


Raccoons go where the food is. Deter their presence by:

– Securing trash can and compost bin lids. Use bungee cords if needed.

– Feeding pets indoors. Don’t leave food outside.

– Installing motion sensor lights and sprinklers on your deck or patio. This scares off nighttime prowlers.

– Using ammonia-soaked rags around potential entry points. Raccoons detest the odor.


Squirrels chew through attics and walls. Block access by:

– Covering attic vents and chimneys with heavy-duty screening and hardware cloth.

– Sealing fascia boards with flashing and silicon caulk.

– Installing a chimney cap and sealing openings with copper mesh or steel wool.

– Sprinkling flakes of crushed red pepper around entry points. Squirrels avoid the spicy scent.

Battling Winter Pests

While some pests die off or hibernate in winter, those that stick around can be a true nuisance. Stop them from ruining your winter with these techniques:

Bed Bugs

Bed bugs live 4-6 months between feedings. Stop their bites by:

– Covering mattresses and box springs with bed bug proof encasements. This traps them inside.

– Washing and drying bedding on the hottest settings items will allow. Heat kills bed bugs.

– Using climb-up bed bug interceptors on furniture legs. These trap bed bugs trying to climb on beds.

– Hiring a pest control professional for chemical fumigation and steam treatments.


Silverfish destroy books, photos, and fabrics. Control them by:

– Fixing leaky pipes and using a dehumidifier. Silverfish thrive in humidity.

– Sealing cracks and crevices where silverfish hide. Caulk and paint will do the trick.

– Setting out sticky traps near common silverfish hiding spots like bookcases.

– Dusting entry points with diatomaceous earth. The sharp particles shred silverfish’s exoskeletons.

Pantry Pests

Moths, weevils, and beetles consume stored food. Stop an infestation through:

– Discarding infested items and cleaning pantries thoroughly. Remove their food source.

– Storing food like flour, grains, and cereals in airtight containers. This contains pests.

– Using pheromone traps and sticky traps in pantries to catch adult moths.

– Freezing small flours and grains for 72 hours before using to kill eggs.

Maintaining Pest-Free Grounds

With vigilance and the right precautionary measures, you can stay one step ahead of seasonal pests. Follow these tips and you’ll be able to keep your home pest-free all year long. Always contact a professional if you have a major pest problem get out of hand. What are your best defense strategies against seasonal pests? Let us know in the comments below!

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How Pests Affect Your Health

Living with Pests: How Pests Affect Your Health

How Pests Affect Your Health

Pests are undesired guests in our homes for a number of reasons; their odors are unpleasant, they cause discomfort to inhabitants, they are culpable for damage to property, and they present a direct danger to our health and wellbeing. Pests hold notoriety for tainting surfaces and propagating diseases, some of which may prove fatal. Numerous individuals may also suffer serious allergic reactions to pests or have pre-existing medical conditions exacerbated by them.

There are a variety of pests capable of inhabiting dwellings and inflicting harm on residents’ health through various mechanisms, making the employment of pest control measures a necessity.


Some common examples of household pests include:

Rodents such as mice and rats are very widespread pests adept at gaining access to homes through small cracks and crevices. Once established indoors, rodents like mice and rats can wreak havoc by gnawing materials, contaminating food sources, and disseminating diseases.

There are numerous insect pests like termites, cockroaches, and ants that routinely encroach upon homes. Termites consume and damage wood. Cockroaches have potential to contaminate food and trigger allergic reactions. Ants form expansive colonies capable of overrunning a home while foraging for sustenance. These insects gain entry through minute openings and can prove very difficult to eliminate entirely.

Mosquitoes are notorious for transmitting dangerous viruses including Zika, West Nile, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis to human and animal populations. The Aedes mosquito propagates the Zika virus which may precipitate severe fetal brain abnormalities. Culex mosquitoes harbor West Nile virus that manifests as fevers, encephalitis, and potentially death. Eastern Equine Encephalitis spread by mosquito bites provokes hazardous inflammation of the brain and proves fatal around 30 percent of the time. These mosquito-borne viruses constitute serious pests that jeopardize human and animal health.


Fleas and ticks:

Rodents possess continuously growing front incisors that require ongoing sharpening by gnawing on soft materials. They chew through electrical wiring, destroy furniture, ruin storage goods, and shred insulation. Rodent droppings and urine contaminate food, developing into dangerous health hazards. Mice and rats further present fire risks from damaged wires caused by perpetual chewing. Their urine and feces also spread diseases such as salmonella, typhus, and hantavirus which may prove fatal. Hantavirus disseminated via contact with rodent urine, droppings, or saliva can lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome featuring potentially lethal respiratory distress.


Insects including termites can compromise the structural integrity of homes by consuming the cellulose in wood. Their extensive tunnels weaken foundations, resulting in potential collapse of walls, floors, or the roof. Cockroaches pose significant health risks because they shed exoskeletons and expel droppings and urine that become airborne allergens. Cockroach particles are known to trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks in sensitive individuals. Conversely, ants foraging for food can direct entire colonies to overwhelm a home while impairing electrical systems. Massive ant infestations can cause substantial damage to electrical equipment and wiring.

Certain mosquitoes transmit viruses such as Zika, West Nile, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis capable of severely sickening or killing humans and animals. The Aedes mosquito spreads the Zika virus which may prompt severe fetal brain defects in infants born to infected mothers. Culex mosquitoes harbor West Nile virus that manifests as fevers, encephalitis, and potentially death. Eastern Equine Encephalitis propagated by mosquito bites provokes dangerous inflammation of the brain and proves fatal around 30 percent of the time. These mosquito-borne viruses constitute serious pests that jeopardize human and animal health.


Arachnids such as fleas and ticks can pose serious health risks. They nourish themselves on human blood through minute bites into the skin, and an adult female flea is capable of producing up to 800 eggs over her lifetime. The bites from these pests may lead to infections including rat-bite fever induced by the bacteria Streptobacillus moniliformis or other Spirochetes microorganisms. Lyme disease propagated by ticks might also provoke severe symptoms if not treated promptly. Ticks can spread additional diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis.

Cohabiting with any type of pest in one’s home constitutes a major problem that can adversely affect health and well-being. It is therefore imperative to conduct a comprehensive pest inspection of the home and thoroughly sanitize surfaces on a regular basis, especially following sightings of cockroaches. Ensuring floors are vacuumed and mopped, countertops wiped down, cabinets cleaned out, and signs of pests sought in pantries, crawl spaces, garages, basements and attics is important. Disinfecting any areas where droppings, nests or other indications of pests have been observed is also essential.


To prevent pests from entering or re-infiltrating one’s home, it is imperative to seal any cracks, crevices or apertures where pests can surreptitiously access the interior. Installing weather stripping around doors and windows and utilizing wire mesh screens on external openings can also deter pest entry. Trimming any trees or shrubbery in contact with the home’s exterior assists with pest prevention. Storing foodstuffs in airtight containers and disposing of garbage regularly in sealed receptacles is advisable. Traps or baits to capture and eliminate pests can be deployed. Natural repellents including essential oils or diatomaceous earth may also discourage pests.

If a severe pest problem emerges, it may be optimal to enlist a professional pest control company. These companies possess the proper equipment and insecticides to effectively eradicate pests. Their technicians can treat interior and exterior areas of the home and provide guidance on prevention strategies. Ensuring the company selected has a reputable standing and utilizes safe, effective pest management practices is important.

Ongoing pest control maintenance is integral to preventing recurring infestations. Scheduling recurring pest control treatments approximately every 3 months helps proactively deter pests. Remaining vigilant in looking for any signs of pests and taking swift action if detected is advisable. With appropriate prevention and control measures, one can maintain a home free of hazardous and bothersome pests. Upholding thorough sanitation and adhering to pest management best practices will help ensure one’s home remains a safe, healthy environment for their family.


How Pests Affect Your Health Conclusion:

In conclusion, pests pose a serious risk to human health and home structures that should not be ignored. Their ability to spread disease, trigger allergies, and cause costly property damage means preventing and eliminating infestations is critical. While some pests like ants and cockroaches may only be nuisances, others like rodents and mosquitoes can transmit potentially fatal diseases.

Employing comprehensive pest control strategies involving sanitation, exclusion, traps, and professional treatments as needed is the best way to protect your family and home from the many health and safety hazards associated with pests. Remaining vigilant and addressing any pest problems swiftly can help ensure your home stays free of these hazardous intruders. With the right prevention and control measures, you can maintain a healthy pest-free environment for your family’s wellbeing.

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insecticide resistance

Tracking insecticide resistance development in pest populations and pursing strategies to manage and minimize resistance

insecticide resistance development:

The development of insecticide resistance represents a grave challenge for food production and public health initiatives aimed at insect pest and vector control. As target species evolve biochemical and physiological mechanisms to withstand the toxic effects of insecticides, managing them becomes drastically more difficult and costly. Therefore, meticulously tracking insecticide resistance trends in pest and vector populations and deploying proactive mitigation strategies are imperative to preserve the efficacy of available insecticides now and into the future.


Insecticide resistance arises through genetic changes in a pest population, conferred either by random mutations or alterations in gene expression, which reduce susceptibility to an insecticide’s intended mechanism of action. When an insecticide kills the susceptible insects in a population but allows the resistant ones to survive long enough to pass on resistance genes, the frequency of resistant organisms increases each generation.


The two primary genetic mechanisms of insecticide resistance are metabolic resistance and target site insensitivity. Metabolic resistance involves amplifying the production of detoxifying enzymes that break down or sequester insecticide molecules before they can reach their targets. Target site resistance reduces the sensitivity of nervous system components like sodium channels and acetylcholinesterase enzymes that insecticides are designed to disrupt.


Monitoring insecticide resistance requires conducting laboratory bioassays to measure mortality rates in pest field isolates exposed to insecticide doses, molecular studies to identify associated genetic and gene expression changes, and vigilant field surveillance to detect early signs of declining insecticide performance. These efforts allow resistance trends to be tracked geographically and over time.


Integrated tactics to manage and minimize further insecticide resistance include:


  1. Avoiding excessive reliance on any single class of chemistry – rotating insecticides with different modes of action disrupts resistance developing to just one type:

Repeatedly using insecticides with the same mode of action can drive target pests to develop resistance to that specific class of chemistry. Rotating between insecticide classes with different modes of action helps prevent resistance building up to any single type. This insecticide rotation disrupts the resistance selection process, buying more time before resistance makes a particular class ineffective.


  1. Combining chemical control judiciously with non-chemical methods like biological control – this reduces selection pressure for resistance to insecticides alone:

Relying solely on insecticide treatments applies constant evolutionary pressure on pests to develop resistance. Integrating chemical control prudently with non-chemical approaches like biological control via natural predators, parasites or pathogens spreads the selection pressure across multiple mortality factors. This integrated approach reduces the intensity of selection for insecticide resistance alone, slowing the development of resistance.


  1. Restricting insecticide use through precise monitoring-guided application – applying only the minimum effective doses needed limits selection for resistance genes:

Blanket insecticide application exerts strong selection for any resistance traits present in a pest population. But precisely monitoring pest levels and limiting insecticide use only to situations where it is truly needed and at minimum effective doses reduces this selection intensity. This careful targeted application curtails selection pressure for resistance genes, preserving insecticide susceptibility.


  1. Planting pest resistant crop varieties – reduces requirements for protective insecticide treatments:

Crops varieties bred or engineered to be resistant or tolerant to key insect pests reduce requirements for protective insecticide applications. By decreasing insecticide use, planting resistant varieties indirectly helps restrict selection pressure for resistance development in pest populations. Resistant crops complement insecticide rotation and targeted application within integrated pest management programs.


  1. Continually developing novel insecticide classes with unique target site activities – can overcome existing resistance mechanisms in pests
    Novel insecticide chemistries with distinct modes of action can circumvent existing resistance in pests and restore control. For example, neonicotinoids overcame organophosphate and carbamate resistance by targeting different receptor sites. Continued insecticide innovation provides new options to cycle into use when pests become resistant to older chemistries.


  1. Using synergistic chemicals to enhance insecticide potency – helps overcome some forms of metabolic resistance:

Synergists are compounds that inhibit insect detoxification enzymes. Adding them to insecticide formulations enhances the toxicity and restores control against pests exhibiting metabolic resistance driven by elevated enzyme levels. Synergists provide a strategy to extend the usefulness of existing insecticides threatened by enhanced detoxification.


  1. Implementing policy regulations on resistance prevention – requiring resistance mitigation practices and disincentivizing overuse:

Policies and regulations mandating resistance risk assessment, monitoring, mitigation plans, and responsible use stewardship programs for insecticides can promote sustainable use. Regulations restricting prophylactic applications and practices likely to select for resistance coupled with prescribing integrated pest management can also accelerate adoption of resistance prevention measures.



Tackling the complex problem of insecticide resistance demands coordinated efforts between researchers, regulators, industry, and agricultural producers to expand resistance monitoring, elucidate resistance mechanisms, and integrate sustainable resistance management into practice. While insecticides remain important tools, overreliance on them alone is unsustainable. Integrated pest management programs and biotechnology-derived pest resistant crops will also play key roles in preserving insecticide effectiveness while reducing environmental impacts. With proactive vigilance, open communication, and collective action across sectors, the useful lifespan of current and future insecticides can be prolonged through judicious integrated use. But securing the long-term future of chemical insect control will require treating resistance as an enduring threat that demands constant vigilance and innovation.

Read The Need For Sustainable Pest Control